Notes on Escherichia

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Family: Enterobacteriaceae.

• G- rods, facultative anaerobes, ferment glucose, cytochrome C oxidase -; catalase +; reduces nitrates to nitrites.


• Endotoxin; some endotoxins.

• Antigens: O (cell envelope); H (flagellar); K (capsular polysaccharide); Vi (virulence).

• Lipid A = septic shock.

• Fimbrial antigen = sticking.

• Capsule = allows bacteria to swim to brain causing meningitis.

Grows on:

• Blood, eosin-methylele blue or MacConkey agar.

Genus: Escherichia.

• G- ; enterobacteriaceae; ferments lactose.

• Oxidase -

• Found in human colon, vagina, or urethra; bovine feces.


Urinary Tract Infection:

• Own fecal flora to urethra; treat with ampicillin or sulfonamides.

Neonatal septicemia and meningitis:

• Capsule with K1 serotype; endotoxin.


• IV lines; caused by endotoxin.

• Gastroenteritides/diarrhea.

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli:

• Traveler's diarrhea.

• LT (adenylate cyclase stimulation by ADP ribosylation of Gs).

• ST (guanylate cyclase stimulation).

• Colony stimulating factor.

Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli:

• Infantile prolonged watery diarrhea.

• E. coli Adherence Factor.

Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli:

• Watery diarrhea, fever, abdominal pain.

• Actin jet trails like shigellosis.

Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli:

• Also known as verotoxin producing E. coli; O157:H7.

• Mild diarrhea to bloody hemorrhagic colitis.

• Protein synthesis inhibited by nicked 60S ribosome.

• Infects Large Intestine.

• Antibiotics increase risk for HUS and kidney damage.

Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli:

• Persistent diarrhea, vomiting.


• Travelers diarrhea: trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.

• Bloody diarrhea: fluoroquinolones.

Additional Readings:

Basic Bacteriology

1. Bacterial Locations and Toxins
2. Growth Medias and Oxygen Requirements
3. Staphylococus
4. Streptococcus
5. Enterococcus
6. Bacillus
7. Listeria
8. Corynebacterium
9. Actinomyces
10. Nocadria
11. Mycobacterium
12. Clostridium
13. Neisseria
14. Pseudomonas
15. Legionella
16. Bordetella
17. Francisella
18. Brucella
19. Campylobacter
20. Escherichia
21. Shigella
22. Klebsiella
23. Salmonella
24. Yersinia
25. Proteus
26. Vibrio
27. Pasteurella
28. Haemophilus
29. Bacteriodes and Prevotella
30. Treponema
31. Borrelia
32. Rickettsia
33. Coxiella
34. Ehrlichia
35. Chlamydia
36. Mycoplasma
37. What is an ELEK's Test?
38. Causes of Orchitis
39. What is Leprosy?
40. What is Folliculitis?
41. What is Botulism?
42. How to interpret PPD (Purified Protein Derivative) results?
43. Prenatal Infections

Related Topics

1. Bacterial vs viral infections

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