Random USMLE Facts volume 3-9

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Random USMLE Facts volume 3-9:

USMLE Facts 1 USMLE Facts 2 USMLE Facts 3 USMLE Facts 4 USMLE Facts 5
USMLE Facts 6 USMLE Facts 7 USMLE Facts 8 USMLE Facts 9 USMLE Facts 10

What is an easy way to access the vertebral artery?

Suboccipital triangle.

What is the mechanism of action of acetazolamide?

Acetazolamide blocks carbonic anhydrase; it works by constricting the afferent arteriole increasing resistance. Thus, acetazolamide is the only diuretic that acts upstream from the macula densa; all diuretics act downstream.

Notes on beta-2 agonists:

These drugs are used for asthma treatment; they increase cAMP levels. There are two types: short-acting and long-acting.
Short acting: albuterol, terbutaline, metaproterenol, and pirbuterol (act from 15-30 minutes ~ 3-4 hours).
Long acting: salmeterol and formoterol (act from 30-60 minutes ~ 12 hours).
The short acting drugs are used for acute asthma attack; the long acting drugs are used for prophylaxis.

Bronchoconstriction action

bronchoconstriction action

What is the difference between statistical and clinical significance?

Statistical significance: this is about the p-value and gives the chance of being wrong if the null hypothesis is rejected (type I / alpha error).
Clinical significance: this is about how many patients get better and what symptom relief is reported.
NOTE: a question like "if I take this drug, what are my chances of having a heart attack?" is a clinical question.

What is the most common cause of neonatal meningitis?

S. agalactiae.

Pressure = TPR x CO.

What are the after-effects of excess androgen production?

Acne, hirsutism, hypertension, and hypokalemia.

What does an osteosarcoma look like?

MRI shows a mass that expands the bone and surrounding soft tissue. Biopsy shows a tumor composed of anaplastic cells and osteoid matrix. Findings may include pain and/or a pathologic fracture.

NOTE: Pain caused by osteoid osteoma (bone-forming tumor) is relieved by aspirin; pain cause by osteosarcoma is not relieved by aspirin.

Which migraine medication causes hypertensive risk?


USMLE Facts 1 USMLE Facts 2 USMLE Facts 3 USMLE Facts 4 USMLE Facts 5
USMLE Facts 6 USMLE Facts 7 USMLE Facts 8 USMLE Facts 9 USMLE Facts 10

Additional Readings:

Random USMLE Facts

1. Random USMLE Facts volume 1-1
2. Random USMLE Facts volume 2-1
3. Random USMLE Facts volume 3-1
4. Random USMLE Facts volume 4-1
5. Random USMLE Facts volume 5-1
6. Random USMLE Facts volume 6-1
7. Random USMLE Facts volume 7-1
8. Random USMLE Facts volume 8-1
9. Random USMLE Facts volume 9-1
10. Random USMLE Facts volume 10-1
11. Random USMLE Facts volume 11-1
12. Random USMLE Facts volume 12-1

General and Systemic Examinations

1. General Examination for Internal Medicine
2. Jugular Venous Distention Workup
3. ER Chest Pain Workup
4. Format for Patient Presentation
5. Pulmonary Examination for Internal Medicine
6. Cardiac Examination for Internal Medicine
7. Abdominal Examination for Internal Medicine
8. Cranial Nerve Reflexes
9. Motor System Examination
10. Random Sensory System Facts
11. Random Stroke Facts

Medical Files & Presentations

1. USMLE Flashcards [Size: 1.9 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
2. Otitis Media in Children [Size: 5.4 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
3. Irritable Bowel Syndrome [Size: 170 kB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
4. Acid-Base Disturbance: Acidotic or Alkalotic? [Size: 427 kB; Format: PDF]
5. Thrombocytopenia [Size: 2.42 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
6. Are Face Transplants Ethical? [Size: 70.2 kB; Format: MS Powerpoint]

USMLE Step 2 CS Videos

1. Video of Cardiology Examination in a Clinical Setting
2. Video of Neurology Examination in a Clinical Setting
3. Video of Pulmonology Examination in a Clinical Setting
4. Video of Musculoskeletal Examination in a Clinical Setting
5. Video of Abdominal Examination in a Clinical Setting
6. Video of HEENT Examination in a Clinical Setting
7. Video and Description of Rinne Hearing Test
8. Video and Description of Weber Hearing Test

USMLE Laboratory (lab) Values

1. USMLE Blood Lab Values
2. USMLE Cerebrospinal Lab Values
3. USMLE Hematologic Lab Values
4. USMLE Sweat and Urine Lab Values

Medical Images

Useful Medical Images & Diagrams (link opens in a new window)

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