Random USMLE Facts volume 4-1

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Random USMLE Facts volume 4-1:

USMLE Facts 1 USMLE Facts 2 USMLE Facts 3 USMLE Facts 4 USMLE Facts 5
USMLE Facts 6 USMLE Facts 7 USMLE Facts 8 USMLE Facts 9 USMLE Facts 10

What is gastroschisis?

Gastroschisis occurs in the fourth week of development; lateral folds move ventrally and fuse in the midline to form the anterior body wall. This incomplete fusion causes completely uncovered abdominal viscera to protrude from the abdominal cavity causing a condition called gastroschisis. There may be increased AFP findings in amniocentesis but ultrasound may not show any neural tube defects.

How do you confirm a P. jiroveci infection?

Methenamine silver stain.

What happens to the total number of arterioles in the body in chronic hypertension?

The arteriole numerical density is decreased.

What are the findings in glioblastoma multiform?

Headaches and alterations in mental status; radiologic imaging confirms a pontine mass. The tumor cells appear to undergo necrosis and hemorrhage. Glioblastoma multiform occurs in the cerebral cortex of adults and brain stem of children.

What are the findings in 21-beta-hydroxylase deficiency?

Vomiting, dehydration; ambiguous genitalia; decreased Na/ECF/low BP; and elevated serum potassium.

How does bacterial resistance against quinolones develop?

Bacterial resistance against quinolones develops primarily through chromosomes and plasmids, but mostly chromosomally mediated.

What is a Baker cyst?

Baker cyst is a cystic enlargement of the popliteal bursa, which is filled with synovial fluid. The common peroneal (fibular) nerve is at risk of injury during a procedure to remove the cyst.

What embryological structure gives rise to the kidney?

Metanephric duct.

What may happen when a pregnant woman is exposed to poorly cooked pork?

There may be T. gondii infection in the neonate.

What may be causes of neonatal encephalitis?

Infection by HSV I, HSV II, CMV.

Notes on nerves:

Inferior rectal nerve is a branch of pudendal nerve.
Inferior gluteal nerve is a branch of sacral plexus.
Pelvic splanchnic nerve is a branch of the 2nd / 3rd / 4th sacral nerves.
Sciatic nerve is a branch of the lumbosacral plexus.
Superior gluteal nerve is a branch of the sacral plexus.

What happens during V-fib? What is the significance of the mean circulatory filling pressure?

The blood flow in circulation ceases within about 1 minute. Within the first several seconds, blood flows mainly from high pressure arterial system into the venous system until all pressures become equal, and this equilibrated pressure is called mean circulatory filling pressure (roughly equal to the mean systemic filling pressure). Thus, the mean systemic filling pressure measures the compliance of the circulatory system. The more the mean systemic filling pressure, the more the compliance.

Cardiac output vs right atrial pressure diagram

cardiac output right atrial pressure diagram

What is the mean systemic filling pressure in the diagram above?

It is the point at which the venous return curves intersect the x-axis.

What are the findings in steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) deficiency?

Male pseudohermaphroditism and adrenal insufficiency due to impaired synthesis of all steroids affecting the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone. Findinds in males include hyperpigmentation, clitoromegaly, no labial fusion, and blind vaginal pouch. Levels of C21, C17, and C18 are all low, and there is no response to ACTH and GnRH stimulation. Blood has high ACTH levels.

Sickle cell anemia is most likely to affect which renal vasculature?

Vasa recta - it is here that the sickling of erythrocytes takes place.

USMLE Facts 1 USMLE Facts 2 USMLE Facts 3 USMLE Facts 4 USMLE Facts 5
USMLE Facts 6 USMLE Facts 7 USMLE Facts 8 USMLE Facts 9 USMLE Facts 10

Additional Readings:

Random USMLE Facts

1. Random USMLE Facts volume 1-1
2. Random USMLE Facts volume 2-1
3. Random USMLE Facts volume 3-1
4. Random USMLE Facts volume 4-1
5. Random USMLE Facts volume 5-1
6. Random USMLE Facts volume 6-1
7. Random USMLE Facts volume 7-1
8. Random USMLE Facts volume 8-1
9. Random USMLE Facts volume 9-1
10. Random USMLE Facts volume 10-1
11. Random USMLE Facts volume 11-1
12. Random USMLE Facts volume 12-1

General and Systemic Examinations

1. General Examination for Internal Medicine
2. Jugular Venous Distention Workup
3. ER Chest Pain Workup
4. Format for Patient Presentation
5. Pulmonary Examination for Internal Medicine
6. Cardiac Examination for Internal Medicine
7. Abdominal Examination for Internal Medicine
8. Cranial Nerve Reflexes
9. Motor System Examination
10. Random Sensory System Facts
11. Random Stroke Facts

Medical Files & Presentations

1. USMLE Flashcards [Size: 1.9 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
2. Otitis Media in Children [Size: 5.4 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
3. Irritable Bowel Syndrome [Size: 170 kB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
4. Acid-Base Disturbance: Acidotic or Alkalotic? [Size: 427 kB; Format: PDF]
5. Thrombocytopenia [Size: 2.42 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
6. Are Face Transplants Ethical? [Size: 70.2 kB; Format: MS Powerpoint]

USMLE Step 2 CS Videos

1. Video of Cardiology Examination in a Clinical Setting
2. Video of Neurology Examination in a Clinical Setting
3. Video of Pulmonology Examination in a Clinical Setting
4. Video of Musculoskeletal Examination in a Clinical Setting
5. Video of Abdominal Examination in a Clinical Setting
6. Video of HEENT Examination in a Clinical Setting
7. Video and Description of Rinne Hearing Test
8. Video and Description of Weber Hearing Test

USMLE Laboratory (lab) Values

1. USMLE Blood Lab Values
2. USMLE Cerebrospinal Lab Values
3. USMLE Hematologic Lab Values
4. USMLE Sweat and Urine Lab Values

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Useful Medical Images & Diagrams (link opens in a new window)

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