Random USMLE Facts volume 4-9

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Random USMLE Facts volume 4-9:

USMLE Facts 1 USMLE Facts 2 USMLE Facts 3 USMLE Facts 4 USMLE Facts 5
USMLE Facts 6 USMLE Facts 7 USMLE Facts 8 USMLE Facts 9 USMLE Facts 10

What may be a virulence factor of N. gonorrhoeae?

Antigenically variable pili.

Smoking increases the risk of what types of cancers?

Small cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.

What is hemoglobin concentration in severe anemia? What happens to pulse pressure in severe anemia?

Hemoglobin concentration in severe anemia is less than 7.5 g/dL. Wide pulse pressure because of increased stroke volume.

What happens in carotid artery occlusion?

Decreased blood flow to carotid sinus, which decreases signals to CN IX, which causes vasoconstriction and increased heart rate. Furthermore, since the heart rate and MAP increases, CN X may work the opposite and may stabilize the heart rate and MAP.

What happens in vagotomy?

CN X is removed in vagotomy, and this results in even stronger increase in heart rate and MAP because CN X is no longer around to detect abnormally high heart rate and MAP.

What gastrointestinal disorder does craniopharyngioma cause?

Diabetes insipidus.

In Alzheimer disease, what is the earliest and most severely affected region of the brain?


In alcohol-related liver cirrhosis, what is the cause of hematemesis?

Hematemesis results due to esophageal varices. In alcohol-related liver cirrhosis, there is blockage of the portal vein, and this causes blood to flow backwards in gastric veins and cause dilation of lower esophagus capillary bed.

What gastrointestinal anomaly can occur in Down syndrome?

Inadequate migration of the neural crest cells which results in duodenal atresia (seen as a double bubble because of gas in the stomach and duodenal bulb).

What cardiac anomaly can occur in Down syndrome?

Endocardial cushion defect due to inadequate migration of neural crest cells.

What is the major risk factor for atherosclerosis?


What is the major protective factor for atherosclerosis?

High HDL.

What exactly causes bone loss in vitamin D deficiency?

Demineralization of osteoid.

What is the best way to confirm 21-hydroxylase deficiency?

Measurement of 17-OH progesterone because it is a direct substrate for 21-hydroxylase.

Can hemoptysis occur in Goodpasture syndrome?

Yes - it is the most common presenting symptom followed by dyspnea, fatigue and cough.

What psychiatric disorder can occur after general anesthesia and surgery?


What nerve is most likely damaged during attempted suicide by cutting of wrist?

Median nerve - arises from lateral (C5, C6, C7) and medial (C8, T1) cords of the brachial plexus.

What is a dumping syndrome?

Dumping syndrome occurs after gastric bypass surgery. Some findings may include infection, hemorrhage, bowel perforation, nausea, diarrhea, sweating, palpitations, flushing. It is advised to eat small, more frequent high-fat meals.

These symptoms occur because:

• Meals are delivered to the small intestine more quickly and cause distention.
• Increased distention causes diarrhea.
• Increased bradykinin and VIP can create hypotension and reflex tachycardia.

USMLE Facts 1 USMLE Facts 2 USMLE Facts 3 USMLE Facts 4 USMLE Facts 5
USMLE Facts 6 USMLE Facts 7 USMLE Facts 8 USMLE Facts 9 USMLE Facts 10

Additional Readings:

Random USMLE Facts

1. Random USMLE Facts volume 1-1
2. Random USMLE Facts volume 2-1
3. Random USMLE Facts volume 3-1
4. Random USMLE Facts volume 4-1
5. Random USMLE Facts volume 5-1
6. Random USMLE Facts volume 6-1
7. Random USMLE Facts volume 7-1
8. Random USMLE Facts volume 8-1
9. Random USMLE Facts volume 9-1
10. Random USMLE Facts volume 10-1
11. Random USMLE Facts volume 11-1
12. Random USMLE Facts volume 12-1

General and Systemic Examinations

1. General Examination for Internal Medicine
2. Jugular Venous Distention Workup
3. ER Chest Pain Workup
4. Format for Patient Presentation
5. Pulmonary Examination for Internal Medicine
6. Cardiac Examination for Internal Medicine
7. Abdominal Examination for Internal Medicine
8. Cranial Nerve Reflexes
9. Motor System Examination
10. Random Sensory System Facts
11. Random Stroke Facts

Medical Files & Presentations

1. USMLE Flashcards [Size: 1.9 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
2. Otitis Media in Children [Size: 5.4 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
3. Irritable Bowel Syndrome [Size: 170 kB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
4. Acid-Base Disturbance: Acidotic or Alkalotic? [Size: 427 kB; Format: PDF]
5. Thrombocytopenia [Size: 2.42 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
6. Are Face Transplants Ethical? [Size: 70.2 kB; Format: MS Powerpoint]

USMLE Step 2 CS Videos

1. Video of Cardiology Examination in a Clinical Setting
2. Video of Neurology Examination in a Clinical Setting
3. Video of Pulmonology Examination in a Clinical Setting
4. Video of Musculoskeletal Examination in a Clinical Setting
5. Video of Abdominal Examination in a Clinical Setting
6. Video of HEENT Examination in a Clinical Setting
7. Video and Description of Rinne Hearing Test
8. Video and Description of Weber Hearing Test

USMLE Laboratory (lab) Values

1. USMLE Blood Lab Values
2. USMLE Cerebrospinal Lab Values
3. USMLE Hematologic Lab Values
4. USMLE Sweat and Urine Lab Values

Medical Images

Useful Medical Images & Diagrams (link opens in a new window)

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