Random USMLE Facts volume 5-1

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Random USMLE Facts volume 5-1:

USMLE Facts 1 USMLE Facts 2 USMLE Facts 3 USMLE Facts 4 USMLE Facts 5
USMLE Facts 6 USMLE Facts 7 USMLE Facts 8 USMLE Facts 9 USMLE Facts 10

Why does orally ingested glucose increase endogenous insulin levels more than IV glucose?

Orally ingested glucose increases duodenal secretion of GIP, increasing beta release of insulin.

In EBV infection, what cells predominate the blood?

CD8+ T lymphocytes.

What are neurocutaneous syndromes?

These are a group of hereditary conditions which cause development of neoplastic or hamartomatous lesions affecting the skin and nervous system. For example, astrocytic tumors may grow on lateral ventricle walls (subependymal giant cell astrocytoma), and there may be development of cortical tubers. Cortical tubers are abnormally developed regions of the brain which may cause seizures and learning disabilities. An example of a cortical tuber would tuber sclerosis.

How is epidermis healed over an abrasion?

Due to growth of epidermis from hair follicles and sweat glands in the dermis. This is because hair follicles contain epithelial stem cells and in-growth of epidermal cells causes the abrasion to heal.

NOTE: hydatidiform mole can progress to choriocarcinoma at a rate of 2%.

What GI condition is common among low birth-weight and premature infants?

Necrotizing enterocolitis. Findings include: acute abdominal distress with GI bleeding, large intestine perforation, and sepsis.

Immediately after HIV infection, what cells are important reservoirs of HIV?

Follicular dendritic cells.

What increases in lipoprotein lipase deficiency?

Chylomicrons - these are digested by lipoprotein lipase.

What receptors are present on a macrophage?

• Fc receptors: they receive IgG.
• Complement receptors: these help in phagocytosis.

What are the chromosomal contents for:

• Complete mole: 46XX.
• Partial mole: 69XXX or 69XXY.

What are the plasma findings in diabetic ketoacidosis?

Blood acetone levels are increased; acetone escapes through the lungs (breath); ketoacids, which include acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate, are normally produced in equal amounts, but in diabetic ketoacidosis, beta-hydroxybutyrate is produced more than acetoacetate.

Where is tuberculin toxin stored in a M. tuberculosis organism?

In the outer surface protein.

What are the differences between Prinzmetal angina patients and unstable patients?

Prinzmetal angina patients are often younger. Prinzmetal angina patients display ST-segment elevation due to transmural ischemia.

What is the common treatment for travelers' diarrhea and UTIs?

Quinolones - this antibiotic interferes with DNA replication by inserting negative supercoils in DNA.

Steady-state concentration = dosing rate / clearance.

What are some findings in ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency?

This is a urea cycle disorder. Findings include spontaneous pneumothorax at birth, tachypnea, lethargy, and vomiting. See: Notes on Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

What is tissue histology in cardiac myxoma?

There is a solitary pedunculated mass within any of the heart chambers; histological analysis reveals that cells are stellate mesenchymal cells mixed with inflammatory and endothelial cells. Sudden death occurs by obstruction of blood flow at mitral or tricuspid valve.

What is the tissue histology of acute mural thrombus?

There is a core of fibrous tissue; development is caused by stasis in ventricular cavities and ventricular enlargement, myocardial infarction, or ventricular aneurysm.

USMLE Facts 1 USMLE Facts 2 USMLE Facts 3 USMLE Facts 4 USMLE Facts 5
USMLE Facts 6 USMLE Facts 7 USMLE Facts 8 USMLE Facts 9 USMLE Facts 10

Additional Readings:

Random USMLE Facts

1. Random USMLE Facts volume 1-1
2. Random USMLE Facts volume 2-1
3. Random USMLE Facts volume 3-1
4. Random USMLE Facts volume 4-1
5. Random USMLE Facts volume 5-1
6. Random USMLE Facts volume 6-1
7. Random USMLE Facts volume 7-1
8. Random USMLE Facts volume 8-1
9. Random USMLE Facts volume 9-1
10. Random USMLE Facts volume 10-1
11. Random USMLE Facts volume 11-1
12. Random USMLE Facts volume 12-1

General and Systemic Examinations

1. General Examination for Internal Medicine
2. Jugular Venous Distention Workup
3. ER Chest Pain Workup
4. Format for Patient Presentation
5. Pulmonary Examination for Internal Medicine
6. Cardiac Examination for Internal Medicine
7. Abdominal Examination for Internal Medicine
8. Cranial Nerve Reflexes
9. Motor System Examination
10. Random Sensory System Facts
11. Random Stroke Facts

Medical Files & Presentations

1. USMLE Flashcards [Size: 1.9 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
2. Otitis Media in Children [Size: 5.4 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
3. Irritable Bowel Syndrome [Size: 170 kB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
4. Acid-Base Disturbance: Acidotic or Alkalotic? [Size: 427 kB; Format: PDF]
5. Thrombocytopenia [Size: 2.42 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
6. Are Face Transplants Ethical? [Size: 70.2 kB; Format: MS Powerpoint]

USMLE Step 2 CS Videos

1. Video of Cardiology Examination in a Clinical Setting
2. Video of Neurology Examination in a Clinical Setting
3. Video of Pulmonology Examination in a Clinical Setting
4. Video of Musculoskeletal Examination in a Clinical Setting
5. Video of Abdominal Examination in a Clinical Setting
6. Video of HEENT Examination in a Clinical Setting
7. Video and Description of Rinne Hearing Test
8. Video and Description of Weber Hearing Test

USMLE Laboratory (lab) Values

1. USMLE Blood Lab Values
2. USMLE Cerebrospinal Lab Values
3. USMLE Hematologic Lab Values
4. USMLE Sweat and Urine Lab Values

Medical Images

Useful Medical Images & Diagrams (link opens in a new window)

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