Random USMLE Facts volume 7-1

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Random USMLE Facts volume 7-1:

USMLE Facts 1 USMLE Facts 2 USMLE Facts 3 USMLE Facts 4 USMLE Facts 5
USMLE Facts 6 USMLE Facts 7 USMLE Facts 8 USMLE Facts 9 USMLE Facts 10

How is prevalence connected to positive and negative predictive values?

As prevalence increases, positive predictive value (PPV) also increases; as prevalence decreases, negative predictive value (NPV) increases.

Why is immunity against N. gonorrhoeae short-lasting?

N. gonorrhoeae displays a high level of variability in antigenic structure, so the IgA and IgG generated from previous infections are ineffective.

Which leg nerve is most commonly injured from lateral blows to the knee as well as from tightly applied plaster casts and other devices?

The common (fibular) peroneal nerve. The nerve is most likely compressed at the fibular head.

Patients with atopic (allergic) dermatitis are at risk of development of what pulmonary complication?

Allergic rhinitis and asthma.

To form a triple helix, what must be the amino acid composition?

(-Gly-X-Y-)333. That is, every third amino acid in the chain must be a glycine.

What is the mechanism of lead overdose?

There are four distinct mechanisms. Lead has a strong affinity for sulfhydryl groups. In the end, delta-aminolevulinic acid is formed when succinyl-CoA and glycine combine in the presence of cofactor pyridoxal phosphate. Thus, blood levels of pyridoxal phosphate are increased in lead poisoning.

What are Councilman bodies?

Councilman bodies are apoptosis bodies (aka acidophilic bodies) seen in liver infected with acute viral hepatitis.

What is the mechanism of colchicine?

Colchicine inhibits leukocyte migration and phagocytosis by blocking tubulin polymerization. Colchicine is used to treat acute gouty arthritis and prophylaxis of recurrent gouty arthritis. Side-effects include nausea and diarrhea.

What are the findings in congenital rubellla? What type of vaccine is rubella vaccine?

Congenital rubella can cause deafness, blindness, cranial defects, and heart complications. Congenital rubella can be prevented by live attenuated vaccine � prescribed to women at least four weeks before pregnancy.

Why does erythropoietin production increase in COPD?

COPD causes hypoxia, which is sensed by cells in the renal cortex that synthesize and release erythropoietin. And erythropoietin simulates erythrocyte production.

What is the treatment for hyperaldosteronism (Conn's Syndrome)?

Spironolactone (old use) or eplerenone (new drug; few side-effects).

Which tuberculosis drug causes decreased visual acuity?

Ethambutol prevents carbohydrate polymerization.

What aspect of hyperthyroidism do beta-blockers not treat?

Exophthalmos; beta-blockers can only treat palpitations, hand tremor, fatigability, and mood swings.

What is the pathogenesis of tertiary syphilis?

Tertiary syphilis can result in thoracic aortic aneurysm. A murmur and mediastinal widening may be present in the patient. FTA-ABS test is positive for tertiary syphilis. The pathogenesis of such an aneurysm begins with vasa vasorum endarteritis and obliteration, resulting in inflammation, ischemia, and weakening of the aortic adventitia.

How do enterococci achieve aminoglycoside resistance?

Enterococci achieve aminoglycoside resistance by producing aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes that transfer different chemical groups (acetyl, adenyl, phosphate) to the aminoglycoside antibiotic molecule outside the bacterium, thus, decreasing the ability of these drugs to bind to ribosomes and exert their antimicrobial effects.

What is the target of Glomerular Basement Membrane antibodies?

Alpha3-chain of collagen type IV.

What is the rapid plasma regain (RPR) test?

In this test, the patient's serum is mixed with a solution of cardiolipin, cholesterol, and lecithin. Aggregation, or "flocculation" demonstrates the presence of cardiolipin antibodies in the patient's serum. This test is confirmation of T. pallidum, and detects antibodies to human cellular lipids released into the bloodstream after cell destruction by T. pallidum.

USMLE Facts 1 USMLE Facts 2 USMLE Facts 3 USMLE Facts 4 USMLE Facts 5
USMLE Facts 6 USMLE Facts 7 USMLE Facts 8 USMLE Facts 9 USMLE Facts 10

Additional Readings:

Random USMLE Facts

1. Random USMLE Facts volume 1-1
2. Random USMLE Facts volume 2-1
3. Random USMLE Facts volume 3-1
4. Random USMLE Facts volume 4-1
5. Random USMLE Facts volume 5-1
6. Random USMLE Facts volume 6-1
7. Random USMLE Facts volume 7-1
8. Random USMLE Facts volume 8-1
9. Random USMLE Facts volume 9-1
10. Random USMLE Facts volume 10-1
11. Random USMLE Facts volume 11-1
12. Random USMLE Facts volume 12-1

General and Systemic Examinations

1. General Examination for Internal Medicine
2. Jugular Venous Distention Workup
3. ER Chest Pain Workup
4. Format for Patient Presentation
5. Pulmonary Examination for Internal Medicine
6. Cardiac Examination for Internal Medicine
7. Abdominal Examination for Internal Medicine
8. Cranial Nerve Reflexes
9. Motor System Examination
10. Random Sensory System Facts
11. Random Stroke Facts

Medical Files & Presentations

1. USMLE Flashcards [Size: 1.9 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
2. Otitis Media in Children [Size: 5.4 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
3. Irritable Bowel Syndrome [Size: 170 kB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
4. Acid-Base Disturbance: Acidotic or Alkalotic? [Size: 427 kB; Format: PDF]
5. Thrombocytopenia [Size: 2.42 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
6. Are Face Transplants Ethical? [Size: 70.2 kB; Format: MS Powerpoint]

USMLE Step 2 CS Videos

1. Video of Cardiology Examination in a Clinical Setting
2. Video of Neurology Examination in a Clinical Setting
3. Video of Pulmonology Examination in a Clinical Setting
4. Video of Musculoskeletal Examination in a Clinical Setting
5. Video of Abdominal Examination in a Clinical Setting
6. Video of HEENT Examination in a Clinical Setting
7. Video and Description of Rinne Hearing Test
8. Video and Description of Weber Hearing Test

USMLE Laboratory (lab) Values

1. USMLE Blood Lab Values
2. USMLE Cerebrospinal Lab Values
3. USMLE Hematologic Lab Values
4. USMLE Sweat and Urine Lab Values

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