Random USMLE Facts volume 7-4

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Random USMLE Facts volume 7-4:

USMLE Facts 1 USMLE Facts 2 USMLE Facts 3 USMLE Facts 4 USMLE Facts 5
USMLE Facts 6 USMLE Facts 7 USMLE Facts 8 USMLE Facts 9 USMLE Facts 10

What cells display class II MHC peptides?

Antigen presenting cells. See: Notes on Antigen Processing and Presentation

Where is serotonin released from?

Raphe nucleus.

Where are norepinephrine-secreting neurons located?

Dorsal pons. These participate in "fight-or-flight" response.

Where are cholinergic neurons located?

Nucleus of Meynert; in Alzheimer's disease, these neurons secrete inadequate amounts of Ach.

Where are cholinergic and GABA-secreting neurons located?

Caudate nucleus; affected in Huntington's disease.

Where are dopaminergic neurons located?

Substantia nigra; affected in Parkinson's disease.

What lobe of the brain is involved in HSV-1 infection? What are the findings?

Temporal lobe involvement. HSV-1 is most common cause of sporadic encephalitis. This encephalitis results from reactivation of latent virus residing within the trigeminal ganglion. Findings include lethargy, confusion, CN defects, and seizures. CT and MRI reveal edema and hemorrhage in the temporal lobe.

What embryological defect is the major cause of tetralogy of Fallot, truncus arteriosus, and transposition of the great vessels?

Abnormal migration of the neural crest cells. Neural crest cells need to migrate into the truncal and bulbar ridges of the truncus arteriosus and bulbus cordis, respectively, and form the aorta and pulmonary artery.

Prolonged exposure to loud sounds can damage what auditory structure?

Organ of Corti.

Ear infection, trauma, pressure changes can damage what auditory structure?

Tympanic membrane.

What is superior mesenteric artery syndrome?

Normally, the superior mesenteric artery and aorta form a 45 degree angle. However, if this angle diminishes, the transverse portion of the duodenum can get entrapped between the superior mesenteric artery and the aorta, leading to superior mesenteric artery syndrome. Some causes of this may include rapid weight loss, loss of mesenteric fat, and prolonged bed rest.

What are some findings in prolonged hyperprolactinemia?

Galactorrhea, hypogonadism, and osteoporosis.

What are the histological findings in GERD?

GERD is caused by gastroesophageal junction incompetence. Findings include elongation of the lamina propriae, many eosinophils, and occasional neutrophils within the squamous epithelium.

What role do neutrophils play in centriacinar emphysema?

Excess neutrophil elastase activity is a major factor that leads to the development of centriacinar emphysema. Note that neutrophil elastase activity is also a factor in development of panacinar emphysema. Elastin is good for the lung but it is destroyed by excess elastase.

What is a life-threatening complication of lamotrigine?

Skin rash in children.

What are some newer medications used for partial seizures?

• Tiagabine (GABA uptake inhibitor).
• Topiramate (blocks Na channels and enhances the effect of GABA).
• Vigabatrin (inhibits GABA-transaminase and increases GABA concentration).
• Gabapentin (increases brain GABA concentration).

What is the usage of a monospot test?

The Monospot test is used to diagnose EBV infection. This test detects a heterogenous group of IgM antibodies that react with the heterophil antigens present on horse red blood cells. Agglutination of horse RBCs is a positive test.

USMLE Facts 1 USMLE Facts 2 USMLE Facts 3 USMLE Facts 4 USMLE Facts 5
USMLE Facts 6 USMLE Facts 7 USMLE Facts 8 USMLE Facts 9 USMLE Facts 10

Additional Readings:

Random USMLE Facts

1. Random USMLE Facts volume 1-1
2. Random USMLE Facts volume 2-1
3. Random USMLE Facts volume 3-1
4. Random USMLE Facts volume 4-1
5. Random USMLE Facts volume 5-1
6. Random USMLE Facts volume 6-1
7. Random USMLE Facts volume 7-1
8. Random USMLE Facts volume 8-1
9. Random USMLE Facts volume 9-1
10. Random USMLE Facts volume 10-1
11. Random USMLE Facts volume 11-1
12. Random USMLE Facts volume 12-1

General and Systemic Examinations

1. General Examination for Internal Medicine
2. Jugular Venous Distention Workup
3. ER Chest Pain Workup
4. Format for Patient Presentation
5. Pulmonary Examination for Internal Medicine
6. Cardiac Examination for Internal Medicine
7. Abdominal Examination for Internal Medicine
8. Cranial Nerve Reflexes
9. Motor System Examination
10. Random Sensory System Facts
11. Random Stroke Facts

Medical Files & Presentations

1. USMLE Flashcards [Size: 1.9 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
2. Otitis Media in Children [Size: 5.4 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
3. Irritable Bowel Syndrome [Size: 170 kB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
4. Acid-Base Disturbance: Acidotic or Alkalotic? [Size: 427 kB; Format: PDF]
5. Thrombocytopenia [Size: 2.42 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
6. Are Face Transplants Ethical? [Size: 70.2 kB; Format: MS Powerpoint]

USMLE Step 2 CS Videos

1. Video of Cardiology Examination in a Clinical Setting
2. Video of Neurology Examination in a Clinical Setting
3. Video of Pulmonology Examination in a Clinical Setting
4. Video of Musculoskeletal Examination in a Clinical Setting
5. Video of Abdominal Examination in a Clinical Setting
6. Video of HEENT Examination in a Clinical Setting
7. Video and Description of Rinne Hearing Test
8. Video and Description of Weber Hearing Test

USMLE Laboratory (lab) Values

1. USMLE Blood Lab Values
2. USMLE Cerebrospinal Lab Values
3. USMLE Hematologic Lab Values
4. USMLE Sweat and Urine Lab Values

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