FAQ on Autonomic System

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FAQ on Autonomic System:

1. What are the principal components of the autonomic nervous system (Autonomic Nervous System)?

Sympathetic and Parasympathetic systems.

2. What is the general function of the Autonomic Nervous System? Contrast this to the function of the somatic branch of the peripheral nervous system.

Control autonomic processes such as breathing, heart-rate, etc. Somatic branch deals with the (voluntary) nervous system.

3. How are alpha and beta-receptors related to noradrenaline?

Noradrelin binds to alpha and beta receptors.

4. What are the autonomic effects on the SA node?

Sympathetic: increases heart rate; Parasympathetic: decreases heart-rate.

5. What are the autonomic effects on the ventricular muscle?

Sympathetic: increases heart rate (more powerful contractions); Parasympathetic: decreases heart-rate (less powerful contractions).

6. Describe the components of the "alarm reaction" and their physiological basis.

Fight-or-flight response.

7. What is the physiologic purpose for the tachycardia in the alarm reaction?

This helps to increase blood flow to skeletal muscles, in preparation for fight or flight.

8. Which organ produces large amounts of catecholamines in the body?

Epinephrine and norepinephrine are produced by adrenal medulla.

9. What is the effect of increased sympathetic discharge on skin blood flow? On skeletal muscle blood flow?

Blood is diverted from skin (less priority) to skeletal muscles (high priority) during fight-or-flight response.

10. A certain category of poisons works by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase, and this results in increased amounts of acetylcholine binding to receptors. Knowing what you know of the effects of acetylcholine, what signs and symptoms would you expect in a patient who had ingested this sort of poison?

Muscle spasms.

The neurotransmitters (acetylcholine, noradrenaline and adrenaline) of the ANS. What neurotransmitters are found in the Sympathetic Nervous System? Parasympathetic Nervous System?

Neurotransmitters found in the Sympathetic Nervous System: acetylcholine, norepinephrine; neurotransmitters found in the Parasympathetic Nervous System: acetylcholine

The receptors that these neurotransmitters bind to (alpha, beta, cholinergic). Where are these receptors found?

Alpha and beta (adrenergic receptors) are found on visceral effectors innervated by most sympathetic postganglionic axons. Cholinergic receptors are integral membrane proteins in the postsynaptic plasma membrane.

Further Topics on Autonomic Nervous System:

1. Introduction to the Autonomic Nervous System
2. Control of the Autonomic Nervous System
3. Divisions the Autonomic Nervous System
4. Notes on Sympathetic Nervous System
5. Notes on Paraympathetic Nervous System
6. Neurons of the Autonomic Nervous System
7. Neurotransmitters and Receptors of the Autonomic Nervous System
8. FAQ on Autonomic System

Additional Reading:

Basic Neurology

1. Peripheral Nervous System
2. Central Nervous System
3. The Ventricular System
4. The Spinal Cord
5. The Brain Stem
6. The Cerebellum
7. Visual Pathways
8. Diencephalon
9. Basal Ganglia
10. Cerebral Cortex
11. Sleep Disorders
12. Autonomic Nervous System
13. Cranial Nerves and Parasympathetic Ganglia
14. Cells of the Nervous System
15. Cerebrospinal fluid
16. Additional short notes on Cerebrum
17. Functions and Diseases of Cerebrum
18. Subcortical Grey Matter
19. Notes on The Spinal Cord
20. Regulation of Heart Rate by Autonomic Nervous System
21. Action Potentials, Axon Conduction, and Neuromuscular Junction
22. Types of Seizures
23. What is a Cough Reflex?
24. Notes on Congenital Prosopagnosia
25. Findings in Parkinson's Disease
26. Types of Heat Strokes
27. Types of Strokes
28. What is Benign Intracranial Hypertension?
29. What is Cauda Equina Syndrome?
30. Cranial Nerve Locations in Brain Stem
31. What is a Cluster Headache?
32. What is a Subarachnoid Hemorrhage?
33. What is a Tension Headache?

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1. Nervous System Disorders
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3. Cranial Nerve Reflexes
4. Motor System Examination

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