Nucleic Acid Structure and Organization

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Transcription vs Translation:


• DNA to RNA.


• RNA to protein.

Nucleotide Bases:


• Adenine, Guanine; two rings.


• Cytosine, Uracil (RNA), Thymine (DNA); one ring.

Daunorubicin and Doxorubicin:

• Interference with topoisomerase II activity; prevent DNA replication.

Organization of DNA:

• Histone is positively charged; DNA is negatively charged.

• DNA winds around histones.

• Acetylation and phosphorylation decreases histone positive charge.


• Loose; transcriptionally active.


• Tight; transcriptionally inactive.

Additional Notes:

• Sulfa drugs: inhibit folate synthesis.

• Methylation in prokaryotes: protects DNA from contamination by foreign DNA.

• Methylation in eukaryotes: control gene function.

• Mitochondrial DNA replicated by: DNA polymerase g.

• Telomerase DNA sequences: highly repetitive sequences.

• Photolyase: fixed thymine dimers in DNA damaged by UV light.

• Collagen a chain: left-handed helix.

• Scurvy (deficiency of ascorbic acid or vitamin C): malfunctioning prolyl hydroxylases.

• Cigarette smoking: changes from G to T within p53 DNA.

Additional Readings:

Basic Biochemistry

1. Nucleic Acid Structure and Organization
2. DNA Replication and Repair
3. Transcription and RNA Processing
4. Genetic Code, Mutations, and Translation
5. Genetic Regulation
6. Recombinant DNA
7. Amino Acids, Proteins, Enzymes
8. Hormones
9. Vitamins
10. Energy Metabolism
11. Glycolysis and Pyruvate Dehydrogenase
12. Citric Acid Cycle and Oxidative Phosphorylation
13. Glycogen, Gluconeogenesis, and Hexose Monophosphate Shunt
14. Lipid Synthesis and Storage
15. Lipid Mobilization and Catabolism
16. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders
17. Purine and Pyrimidine Metabolism
18. Electron Transport
19. Citric Acid Cycle and Glyoxylate Cycle
20. Glycolysis
21. Pyruvate Metabolism
22. Mitochondrial ATP formation
23. Gluconeogenesis
24. Glycogen Metabolism
25. Nitrogen Fixation (Metabolism) reactions, and Heme Metabolism
26. Amino Acid Metabolism
27. What is Medium Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency (MCADD)?

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